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HISTORY OF ANKARA

The Source of Its Name
history_ankara.jpgIt is not known for sure where Ankara’s name originates from. According to sayings which do not base of documents but have passed down to today, Ankara’s first name was Ankryra, which was firstly given by Galatians in the history and it means hoe in Greek language. This name changed in time as Ancyre, Enguriye, Enguru, Angara, Angora and Ankara at the end.

History
Ankara was capital of Tektosag clan of Galatia in Hellenistic period, it was the capital of the country part during Roman period, it was somewhere empires stayed for a night during Byzantine period and it was the centre of Anatolian State during Ottoman Empire. Phrygians ruled Ankara region after Hittites. According to a legend from the sources of ancient ages, Ankara was constructed by Kind Midas of Phrygia.
In excavations made in Ulus, the centre of the city, findings indicating that Phrygians had lived in Ankara were obtained. After invasion of Cimmerians, which played a great role in devastation of Phrygian state, Ankara was occupied by Lydians. However, the ruling of Lydians ended after Persian King Kyros invaded all Anatolia, including Ankara. Alexander the Great ended the Persian’s ruling in Anatolia. After the Empire Augustus occupied Ankara absolutely, Ankara developed as a state , and tables, market places, waterlines were constructed thereafter. Ankara was under the rule of Byzantine Empire between the years 334 and 1073. During this time, Ankara was an important centre of Christianity in Anatolia. Arabs also occupied the city for a period of time after the raids of Sasanid Empire in VVI Century.

history_ankara1.jpgAnkara’s destiny was designed with the Malazgirt battle, which resulted in Byzantine troops’ being defeated by Alparslan, the Sultan of Sejukian State. After this defeat, the Ankara city was occupied by Turks. Ankara city’s being occupied by Turks is very important because Ankara fortress had a very important position for military purposes. During the ruling period of G›yaseddin Keykhusrev II,
Sultan of Seljukian State, Ankara city was invaded by Mongols and it was could not be stopped in spite of all efforts. Sultan G › y a s e d d i n KeykhusrevII took refugee in Ankara fortress from Mongols. After this attack of Mongols, Seljuk State weakened and Anatolia was began to be controlled by Ilhanid Empire and then it was controlled by sons of Eretnaians. Orhan Gazi’s son Suleyman Pafla occupied Ankara city for the Ottoman Empire in 1354. Any important event did not happen until the period of Yıldırım Beyaz›t. The destiny of the city changed after the Battle of Ankara. After Timut left Ankara, Yıldırım Beyaz›t’s son Mehmet Çelebi declared that he was sultan and occupied Ankara.

During ruling period of Suleyman, the magnificent, a state organization was established in Anatolia and Ankara was one of the centres of this state. Ankara city was occupied by the insurgents who started Jelali revolts in 17th century. After being ruled by Mehmet Ali Pafla, the governor of Egypt, who rebelled against Mahmut II, it was occupied by Ottoman Empire again and it continued remaining under its control as a province. Republican Period “The Representatives Association for Defence of Rights of Anatolia and Rumelia, headed by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, came to Ankara on December 27, 1919 and made a declaration that all the parliaments were to get to gather on December 29, 1919 in Ankara. After this declaration, the centre of government of Grand National Assembly of Turkey which was formed on April 23, 1920 was Ankara. By means of a law that was made on October 13,1923, Ankara city was declared as the capital city of Ankara.